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Male Related Cancer Articles: Testicular Cancer
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What are the risk factors for testicular cancer?

The exact causes of testicular cancer are not known. However, studies have shown that several factors increase a man's chance of developing this disease.

  • Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism): Normally, the testicles descend from inside the abdomen into the scrotum before birth. The risk of testicular cancer is increased in males with a testicle that does not move down into the scrotum. This risk does not change even after surgery to move the testicle into the scrotum. The increased risk applies to both testicles.
  • Congenital abnormalities: Men born with abnormalities of the testicles, penis, or kidneys, as well as those with inguinal hernia (hernia in the groin area, where the thigh meets the abdomen), may be at increased risk.
  • History of testicular cancer: Men who have had testicular cancer are at increased risk of developing cancer in the other testicle.
  • Family history of testicular cancer: The risk for testicular cancer is greater in men whose brother or father has had the disease.

How is testicular cancer detected? What are symptoms of testicular cancer?

Most testicular cancers are found by men themselves. Also, doctors generally examine the testicles during routine physical exams. Between regular checkups, if a man notices anything unusual about his testicles, he should talk with his doctor. Men should see a doctor if they notice any of the following symptoms:

  • a painless lump or swelling in a testicle
  • pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum
  • any enlargement of a testicle or change in the way it feels
  • a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • a dull ache in the lower abdomen, back, or groin
  • a sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum

These symptoms can be caused by cancer or by other conditions. It is important to see a doctor to determine the cause of any of these symptoms.


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At bedtime one night in March 2003, I suddenly noticed that my right testicle was more than double normal size...
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