- A Scrotal ultrasound is used to confirm solid
- Blood tests for tumor markers:
alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and
lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). Approximately 85% of non-seminomas will
have elevations of either AFP or beta HCG. These tests can also be used
to monitor the response to treatment.
- A chest X-ray is done to look for potential
metastasis (spreading of cancer) to the lungs.
- An abdominal CT scan may be done to look for
- Physical exam by a urologist
Stages of Testicular
Once cancer of the testicle has been found, more
tests will be done to find out if the cancer has spread from the
testicle to other parts of the body (staging). A doctor needs to know
the stage of the disease to plan treatment. The following stages are
used for cancer of the testicle:
Cancer is found only in the testicle.
Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the
abdomen (lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped structures that are found
throughout the body; they produce and store infection-fighting cells).
Cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes in the
abdomen. There may be cancer in parts of the body far away from the
testicles, such as the lungs and liver.
Recurrent disease means that the cancer has come
back (recurred) after it has been treated. It may come back in the same
place or in another part of the body. A patient should regularly
examine the opposite testicle for possible recurrence for many years
after treatment. Patients will probably have check-ups once per month
during the first year after surgery, every other month during the next
year, and less frequently after that.